Terpenes 101

Learn more about Jamphas 7 unique synergistic terpene blends. 

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Terpenes are chemicals with a huge array of fragrances, flavors, and effects. Their extractions from plants are the most important components of the essential oils used in herbal medicine, nutritional supplements and cosmetics. Jampha has harnessed the power of these plant medicines into 7 power packed terpene profiles. 

 Isolated Terpene Properties

Alpha-Pinene and Beta-Pinene (a-pinene and b-pinene)
These two cannabis terpenes smell like pine trees, and that’s also where they can be found in large amounts. Other plants rich in pinene include rosemary, orange peels, basil, parsley and cannabis, of course. Like many others, pinene terpenes have an anti-inflammatory effect on humans. But more importantly, they help improve air flow and respiratory functions, while also helping to reduce memory loss related to THC. The role of cannabis, if the strain is rich in alpha and beta pinene, can actually help with asthma. Pinene also helps patients with arthritis, Crohn’s disease and cancer. Welcome to the benefits of pinene!

Alpha-Bisabolol
Alpha-bisabolol (also known as levomenol and bisabolol) has a pleasant floral aroma and can also be found in chamomile flower and candeia tree. This terpene found its use primarily in the cosmetics industry, but lately it has caught the attention of researchers since it showed medical benefits, especially from cannabis. Alpha-bisabolol proved to be effective in treating bacterial infections and wounds and is a great antioxidant with anti-irritation and analgesic properties.

Alpha-Phellandrene
Phellandrene is commonly used in the perfume industry. The natural aroma combined with its absorbency makes this one sought-after terpene! We know that a-Phellandrene is perfect for:
Comfort
Energy Boosting
Soothing
Spirit Enhancement

Borneol
Borneol, with its herbal minty scent, can be found in herbs like rosemary, mint and camphor. This terpene is a good natural insect repellent which makes it great in preventing diseases like the West Nile virus that can be passed by ticks, fleas, mosquitoes, etc. One study found that borneol kills breast cancer cells. It’s also widely used in Chinese traditional medicine; acupuncture to be precise.

Cadinene
Cadinene has been known to assist with inflammation, improving energy levels, and uplifting the spirits of users. While we offer cadinene in our terpene selection, this chemical component is also found in basil essential oils and is often used to add flavoring to food.

b-Caryophyllene
Best known for its spicy and peppery note, caryophyllene is also found in black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, and spices like oregano, basil and rosemary. Beta-Caryophyllene binds to CB2 receptors, which makes it an ingredient in anti-inflammatory tropicals and creams. Caryophyllene is the only terpene that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Besides its analgesic and anti-anxiety properties, some studies have found that caryophyllene has some very promising properties for alcoholism rehabilitation. A group of scientists performed research on mice and found that this terpene reduces voluntary intake of alcohol. They even recommended caryophyllene for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

Camphene
The best way to describe the smell of camphene is similar to fir needles, musky earth and damp woodlands. Camphene aroma is often mistaken with myrcene, which is that trademark marijuana smell. From the medical point of view, camphene has great potential. When mixed with Vitamin C, it becomes a powerful antioxidant. It is widely used in conventional medicine as a topical for skin issues like eczema and psoriasis. Its greatest potential lies in its ability to lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, further lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Camphor
Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) is a terpene (organic compound) that’s commonly used in creams, ointments, and lotions. Camphor oil is the oil extracted from the wood of camphor trees and processed by steam distillation. It can be used topically to relieve pain, irritation, and itching. Camphor is also used to relieve chest congestion and inflammatory conditions.
Scientific research is limited for some of the purported uses for camphor and the evidence is largely anecdotal. Camphor oil may also be used to treat:
hair loss, acne, warts, earaches, cold sores, hemorrhoids, heart disease symptoms, poor blood circulation, flatulence, anxiety, depression, muscle spasms, low libido

Citral
The findings suggest that citral increases energy dissipation and also reduces lipid accumulation, consequently preventing and ameliorating diet-induced obesity. In addition it has been found to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Its potential for healing is significant.

Delta 3 Carene
This terpene is found in a number of plants like rosemary, basil, bell peppers, cedar and pine. Its aroma is sweet and resembles the smell of a cypress tree. It appears to be mostly beneficial in promoting healing broken bones. That gives hope to patients suffering from osteoporosis, arthritis and even fibromyalgia. What is also interesting about this terpene is that it stimulates our memory and helps memory retention. Delta 3 Carene may prove to be helpful in finding a cure for Alzheimer’s disease.

Eucalyptol
Also known as cineole, eucalyptol is the primary terpene of the eucalyptus tree. It has recognizable minty and cool tones in its smell, but most cannabis strains do not contain large amounts of it. It usually makes up around 0.06% of a strain’s complete terpene profile. This terpene has been used in cosmetics, as well as medicine. Eucalyptol relieves pain but also slows the growth of bacteria and fungus. Although it is still in the early stages of research, this terpene has shown some promising effects on Alzheimer’s as well.

Eugenol
The therapeutic properties of clove oil are legendary. It is commonly used as a stimulant and has expectorant, carminative, digestive, stomachic, sedative, and antispasmodic properties. It stimulates digestion, helps with flatulence, restores appetite, and is a highly effective aid in convalescence from illness or surgery.

Fenchol

Like borneol, fenchol is an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, with the ability to act as an anti-inflammatory. Neither fenchol or borneol are known to act as sedatives or stimulants.

Geraniol
Besides cannabis, geraniol can be found in lemons and tobacco. Its smell may remind us of roses, grass, peaches and plums. It’s usually used in aromatic bath products and body lotions. Geraniol has shown noteworthy potential as a neuroprotectant and antioxidant.

G-Terpinene
One of the most versatile terpenes available. It offers a wide range of benefits for: Acaricide, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Aldose reductase inhibitor, Anti acetylcholinesterase, Anti feed-ant , Anti nitrosamines
Anti oxidant, Anti spasmodic, Flavor, Insecticide, Insectifuge, Irritant
Cytochrome-P450-2B1 inhibitor, Perfumery, Pesticide, Spasmogenic.

Humulene

Humulene was the first terpene found in hops. Its aroma contains earthy, woody and spicy notes. Besides cannabis, it can be also found in clove, sage, and black pepper. It has a variety of medical properties. Early research has shown humulene to be anti-proliferative, meaning it prevents cancer cells from growing. It has also proven effective in suppressing appetite, making it a potential weight loss tool.

Limonene
Limonene is the second most abundant terpene in all cannabis strains, but not all strains necessarily have it. As its name says, limonene gives strains a citrusy smell that resembles lemons, which is no surprise as all citrus fruits contain large amounts of this compound. Limonene is used in cosmetics and also in cleaning products. For therapeutic purposes, limonene is known to improve mood and reduce stress. Researchers also found it to have anti-fungal and antibacterial properties and one research even found it to have a role in reducing tumor size.

Linalool
This terpene is most responsible for the recognizable marijuana smell with its spicy and floral notes. Linalool is also found in lavender, mint, cinnamon and coriander. What’s interesting is that just like those aromatic herbs, it has very strong sedative and relaxing properties. Patients suffering from arthritis, depression, seizures, insomnia and even cancer, have all found aid in this amazing terpene. It also reduces inflammation, relieves pain and fights bacterial infections.

Trans-nerolidol
is a terpene found in many strong aromatics like jasmine, tea tree, and lemongrass. As such, it delivers a subdued and nuanced floral aroma with notes of fruity citrus, apples, and rose. This terpene is believed to produce sedating effects, and is being investigated for the following medical benefits:
Inhibits growth of leishmaniasis, Anti parasitic, Anti fungal, Antimicrobial

Myrcene
Myrcene is the most abundant terpene in cannabis, and abundant in nature as well. In fact, one study showed that myrcene makes up as much as 65% of total terpene profile in some strains. Myrcene smell often reminds of earthy, musky notes, resembling cloves. Also, it has a fruity, red grape-like aroma. Strains that contain 0.5% of this terpene are usually indicas with the associated sedative effects. It has also been reported that myrcene is useful in reducing inflammation and chronic pain, which is why it’s usually recommended as a supplement during cancer treatments.

Ocimene
Although further research is needed, ocimene has shown promising antiviral, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-oxidative, and antiseptic effects. Monoterpenes such as ocimene are used in aromatherapy as a decongestant because they act as a mucous membrane tonic.

Para Cymene
A monoterpene found in over 100 plant species used for medicine and food purposes. It shows a range of biological activity including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, anticancer and antimicrobial effects. This is explored in detail in the book Essential Oils: A Handbook for Aromatherapy Practice, 2nd Ed., that was written by the aromatherapy expert Jennifer Peace Rhind. It can be difficult to determine exactly what is impacting on the nervous system with essential oils, given the complexity and the variety of terpenes that are found in any one oil, however, p-cymene combined with the other terpenes that are found in sweet marjoram oil clearly has beneficial effects for numbing and soothing pain.

Phytol

The discovery of phytol as an important part of a human’s regular diet has led to many research studies regarding its use. Phytol is associated with Vitamins E and K. Vitamin E is useful for cell health and can help decrease cell aging. It is useful for healthy skin, hair and a stronger immune system. Vitamin K, on the other hand, is also involved in blood clotting and is useful in improving bone health and the treatment of many gastrointestinal illnesses.
Phytol is also beneficial in regulating blood glucose and can possibly restore the metabolic functions of a type 2 diabetic. There have also been studies regarding the effectiveness of phytol in reducing cholesterol levels in blood ultimately reducing blood pressure levels as well.

Pulegone

Pulegone is a monocyclic monoterpenoid that forms a minor part of the cannabis compound. You can find high concentrations of pulegone in rosemary. Rosemary has properties that enable it to break down acetylcholine in the brain, thereby facilitating communication between nerve cells. This will help reduce stress.

Sabinene

Sabinene also exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and antifungal properties. According to a study titled “Anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crochet L.essential oil”, it has been found that sabinene exhibited a strong anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharides and interferon gamma triggered macrophages. It is also used to treat inflammation on the skin. It is also used for the treatment of dermatophytosis and other inflammatory conditions.
Sabinene exhibits strong to moderate anti-bacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and anti-fungal activity against pathogenic fungi.
Sabinene present in tea tree oil is an anti-bacterial and an antiseptic, anti-helicobacter, anti-ulcer. Sabinene is also used in perfumery and as a flavoring

Terpineol

Terpineol is a useful terpene for medical cannabis patients because it possesses a number of key therapeutic properties. Studies show that this terpene is able to help manage pain and inflammation, reduce the frequency and intensity of seizures, act as a gastroprotective, and kill bacteria.
Patients who suffer from chronic seizures might also benefit from Hemp strains containing high amounts of terpineol. It has been demonstrated that at doses between 100 and 400 mg/kg, terpineol is able to improve the latency and severity of seizures. Finally, besides reducing pain, inflammation, and the intensity of seizures, terpineol can also be used to kill various microbial strains. In fact, one study reports that terpineol was effective against all microbial strains they tested, showing vast amounts of promise when used as a topical.

Terpinolene
Terpinolene is used as an aroma agent in soaps and perfumes, and also as a component of some insect repellents. As opposed to other terpenes found in cannabis, terpinolene is neither an analgesic nor an anti-inflammatory. However, this terpene is studied for its anti fungal and antibacterial properties, and also for its mild sedative action. We are interested in terpinolene, as users and patients, because it is one of the actors in the synergetic performance that enhances the action of THC and CBD.

Trans-nerolido
Trans-nerolidol is a secondary terpene found mostly in flowers like jasmine, lemongrass, and tea tree oil. The smell of trans-nerolidol reminds of a mixture of rose, citrus and apples and can be described in general as woody, citrus and floral. Trans-nerolidol is best known for its anti parasitic, antioxidant, anti-fungal, anticancer and antimicrobial properties.

Terpineol

The aroma of terpineol can be best described as floral-like, reminiscent of lilacs, apple blossom, and a little bit citrusy. Terpineol tastes like anise and mint. Terpineol has a pleasant scent, similar to lilac, and is a common ingredient in perfumes, cosmetics, and flavors. It promotes heavy relaxing behaviors such as the notorious “couch potato” effect. Medical benefits of terpineol also include antibiotic and antioxidant properties.

Valencene
This terpene has its name from the sweet Valencia oranges — where it’s been found in large amounts. With its sweet citrusy aromas and flavors, it’s used as an insect repellant. It is known for its sedative and calming properties. It also shows promise in traumatic stress and anxiety disorder treatment.