Geraniol, a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol, has been recognized for its diverse biological activities. This monograph aims to provide a comprehensive review of scientific studies related to the healing potential of geraniol, covering its sources, chemical properties, pharmacological activities, and therapeutic potential in various disorders.
Geraniol has been widely studied for its potential healing properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, and anticancer activities. This review discusses the current state of scientific knowledge on geraniol and its potential therapeutic applications.
Sources and Chemical Properties
Geraniol is found in various plants, including geraniums, roses, and citronella. It is a monoterpene alcohol characterized by a linear carbon chain with an alcohol functional group at one end.
Antioxidant Activity Geraniol exhibits potent antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo. It has been shown to scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidative stress, contributing to its potential therapeutic effects (Rajkumar et al., 2012).
Anti-Inflammatory Activity Geraniol possesses anti-inflammatory properties, as demonstrated in various in vitro and in vivo studies. It modulates the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and cytokines (Chen et al., 2013).
Antimicrobial Activity Geraniol exhibits antimicrobial activity against various bacteria, fungi, and viruses, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Its mechanism of action is believed to involve the disruption of microbial cell membranes, leading to cell death (De Cássia da Silveira e Sá et al., 2013).
Analgesic Activity The analgesic properties of geraniol have been demonstrated in animal pain models. Its analgesic effects are thought to be mediated by its ability to modulate pain perception through the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (Rajkumar et al., 2014).
E. Anticancer Activity Geraniol has shown potential anticancer activity in various in vitro and in vivo studies. It has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis and inhibit cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis (Rekha et al., 2017).
Therapeutic Potential in Various Disorders
Inflammatory Disorders The anti-inflammatory activity of geraniol has been explored for its potential use in treating various inflammatory disorders, such as arthritis, asthma, and colitis. Its ability to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators may help alleviate inflammation and improve symptoms associated with these conditions (Chen et al., 2013).
Infectious Diseases Geraniol's antimicrobial properties make it a promising candidate for treating bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. Studies have demonstrated its effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of various pathogens and reducing the severity of conditions (De Cássia da Silveira e Sá et al., 2013).
Pain Management The analgesic activity of geraniol has been studied for its potential use in pain management, including treating neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Its ability to modulate TRP channels and reduce pain perception makes it a promising candidate for pain relief (Rajkumar et al., 2014).
Cancer Treatment Geraniol's anticancer properties have been investigated for their potential use in the prevention and treatment of various cancers. Its ability to induce apoptosis and inhibit cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis makes it a promising candidate for cancer therapy (Rekha et al., 2017).
Neurodegenerative Diseases Geraniol has demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects in models of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Its ability to reduce oxidative stress and modulate neuroinflammatory responses may contribute to its neuroprotective properties (Ayaz et al., 2017). Further research is needed to determine the precise mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective effects and explore its potential use in preventing and treating these debilitating conditions.
Gastrointestinal Disorders The antispasmodic and gastroprotective activities of geraniol have been studied for their potential use in managing gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), dyspepsia, and gastric ulcers. Its ability to reduce smooth muscle contractions and protect gastric mucosa may help alleviate symptoms associated with these conditions (Murata et al., 2013).
Geraniol has demonstrated various pharmacological activities that contribute to its potential healing capabilities. Its diverse activities highlight the potential therapeutic applications of geraniol in multiple disorders, including inflammatory conditions, infectious diseases, pain management, cancer treatment, neurodegenerative diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate the precise mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects and establish optimal dosages, formulations, and routes of administration for clinical use. The potential of geraniol as an adjuvant therapy in combination with other medications should also be explored to maximize its therapeutic potential.