α-Phellandrene, a naturally occurring monoterpene, has attracted attention recently due to its diverse biological activities. This monograph aims to provide a comprehensive review of scientific studies on the healing potential of α-phellandrene, covering its sources, chemical properties, pharmacological activities, and therapeutic potential in various disorders.
α-Phellandrene is a monoterpene with a characteristic citrus and mint aroma. It has been recognized for its potential healing properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. This review discusses the current state of scientific knowledge on α-phellandrene and its potential therapeutic applications.
Sources and Chemical Properties
α-Phellandrene is found in various plants, including eucalyptus, citrus fruits, and spices like black pepper and cinnamon. Its chemical structure features a double bond and two nonconjugated carbon-carbon double bonds in a linear chain, distinguishing it from other terpenes.
α-Phellandrene has been studied for its anti-inflammatory properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated its ability to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and cytokines (Chen et al., 2014).
The antimicrobial properties of α-phellandrene have been shown against many bacteria and fungi, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans (Ojeda-Sana et al., 2013). Its mechanism of action is believed to involve the disruption of microbial cell membranes, leading to cell death.
α-Phellandrene has been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidative stress. Its antioxidant potential has been attributed to its ability to donate hydrogen atoms and chelate metal ions (Wu et al., 2013).
α-Phellandrene has shown potential anticancer activity in various in vitro and in vivo studies. Its anticancer mechanisms are thought to involve the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis (Yang et al., 2016).
Therapeutic Potential in Various Disorders
The anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of α-phellandrene have been explored for treating respiratory disorders, such as asthma, bronchitis, and sinusitis. These compounds have been shown to reduce airway inflammation and improve lung function in animal models of asthma (Liao et al., 2015).
α-Phellandrene has demonstrated gastroprotective effects in animal models of gastric ulcers. Its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities are believed to contribute to the healing of gastric mucosal lesions (Rocha et al., 2015).
The antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of α-phellandrene make it an attractive candidate for treating skin disorders, such as acne, eczema and wound healing. Its soothing and regenerative effects on skin tissue have also been reported (Selim et al., 2016).
The anticancer activity of α-phellandrene has been investigated in various cancer types, including breast, lung, and colon cancer. Its potential as an adjuvant therapy in combination with conventional cancer treatments has also been explored (Wang et al., 2017).
α-phellandrene has demonstrated various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumor properties, contributing to its potential healing capabilities. These diverse activities highlight the potential therapeutic applications of α-phellandrene in various disorders, such as oxidative stress-related disorders, inflammatory conditions, infectious diseases, and cancer.