Glossary of Terpenes

October 05, 2020 0 Comments

Glossary of Terpenes

Terpenes are remarkable compounds that plants use to attract pollinators, repel pests, repair cell damage, and manage other crucial functions. They are powerful plant healers. In addition to performing specific functions, each terpene has a distinct aroma and taste.

Like cannabinoids, terpenes activate receptors in the human endocannabinoid system (ECS), a network of neurotransmitters that stretch from head to toe. The ECS system is important because it balances the immune system, regulates brain signaling, maintains temperature, heart rate, and breathing rate, and plays a role in digestion, mood, and memory.

Mind-Blowing Molecules

These impressive molecules, called terpenes, are already used in medication, perfumes, cosmetics, beauty products, food flavorings, and cleaning solutions. They are particularly abundant in cannabis and hemp plants. Research into many terpenes is just beginning.

Here are the terpenes we use in our Jampha CBD collections. We've gathered some of the research on each one. There are additional benefits and plant sources for each terpene -- our list is not comprehensive. Terpenes are found in many plants with as many as 333 terpenes found in the hemp plant alone. 

Anti-inflammatory Antibacterial/ Antimicrobial Antiviral Anti-fungal Antioxidant Fights or Kills Cancer Cells Manage Glucose/ Improve Metabolic Rates Benefits to Skin Reduce Seizures
Alpha Bisabolol Alpha Bisabolol Geraniol Alpha Phellandrene Alpha Phellandrene Alpha Phellandrene Citral Alpha Bisabolol Linalool
Alpha and Beta Pinene Alpha and Beta Pinene Limonene Camphene Eugenol Alpha and Beta Pinene Myrcene Beta Caryophyllene Ocimene
Beta Caryophyllene Cadinene Ocimene Eucalyptol Gamma Terpinine Beta Caryophyllene   Camphor Terpineol
Cadinene Citral   Eugenol Geraniol Geraniol   Valencene
Camphor Delta 3 Carene   Geraniol Nerolidal Humulene      
Citral Eugenol   Ocimene Para-Cymene Linalool      
Delta 3 Carene Geraniol   Terpineol Phytol Nerolidal      
Eucalyptol Humulene       Ocimene      
Eugenol Limonene       Para-Cymene      
Gamma Terpinine Nerol       Phytol      
Geraniol Nerolidal       Terpineol      
Humulene Ocimene              
Myrcene Para-Cymene              
Nerol Terpineol              
Nerolidal                
Para-Cymene                
Phytol                
Valencene                

 

Reduces Anxiety Lifts Depression Sleep Aid Improves Memory Respiratory Benefits Prevents or Heals Heart Disease Reduce Seizures Pain Relief Benefits to Skin Natural Insecticide
Beta Caryophyllene Beta Caryophyllene Linalool Eucalyptol Alpha and Beta Pinene Camphene Linalool Camphor Alpha Bisabolol Limonene
Eucalyptol Camphor Myrcene Geraniol Cadinene Limonene Ocimene Linalool Beta Caryophyllene Linalool
Limonene Eucalyptol Pulegone Pulegone Camphene   Terpineol Myrcene Camphor Nerolidal
Linalool Geraniol Terpinolene   Delta 3 Carene     Nerol Valencene Terpinolene
Terpinolene Limonene   Eucalyptol          
Linalool     Ocimene          

 

Alpha Bisabolol

Sources: Cannabis, Chamomile

Benefits 

  • Sedative, especially mentally calming
  • Used in skin care for its antioxidant, anti-aging, and wound healing properties
  • Anti-cancer
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Fights infection

Description

A frequent ingredient in personal care products due to its skincare benefits, studies on alpha-bisabolol reveal its antioxidant, anti-aging, and wound healing properties.

When tested on leukemia cells, alpha-bisabolol was effective against them

Alpha bisabolol provides a sedative effect that is particularly mentally calming. It  also works to reduce inflammation and fight infection.

Alpha bisabolol is included in the following Jampha products:

Balance

Detox

Relieve

Calm

Alpha Phellandrene

Sources: Cannabis, Eucalyptus, Mint, Parsley, Dill, Cinnamon

Benefits

  • Fights cancer cells
  • Kills fungus
  • Boosts the immune system

Description

Found in various natural sources including eucalyptus, black pepper, and cannabis, alpha phellandrene is gaining recognition for potential anti-cancer applications, including against breast and prostate cancer cells.

Studies also show alpha phellandrene works as an antifungal. It severely disrupts the integrity of the fungal cell membrane.

Alpha phellandrene also boosts immune function.

Plants containing this terpene were commonly used in Chinese medicine as a treatment for fungal and bacterial infections, and to reduce phlegm and increase energy.

Alpha phellandrene is included in the following Jampha products:

Focus

Detox

Relieve

Breathe

Alpha and Beta-Pinene

Sources: Cannabis, Pine Needles, Basil, Rosemary

Benefits

  • Kills bacteria
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Inhibits both cancer and leukemia cells
  • Fights neurodegenerative diseases

Description

Responsible for the fresh, piney scent in cleaning products, pinene is found in cannabis, pine needles, eucalyptus leaves, and lemon peels.

Multiple studies show pinene fights infection, reduces inflammation, and can inhibit cancer and leukemia cells.

These remarkable terpenes also may help treat and prevent neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's and Parkinson’s diseases. Specifically, pinene helps manage the levels of oxidants and anti-oxidants in your nervous system.

If you've ever enjoyed a stroll through a forest of pine trees, you've sampled this terpene's refreshing molecular magic.

Alpha and beta-pinene are included in the following Jampha products:

Focus

Balance

Detox

Relieve

Breathe

Sleep

Beta-Caryophyllene

Sources: Cannabis, Hops, Black Pepper, Cloves, Cinnamon, Rosemary

Benefits

  • Fights inflammation
  • Reduces anxiety and depression
  • Accelerates cell healing
  • Reduces tumor necrosis factor

Description

This powerhouse terpene, spicy-scented beta-caryophyllene, is abundant in hemp and cannabis plants. Preliminary medical studies show it fights inflammation, helps reduce anxiety and depression, reduces the tumor necrosis factor, and accelerates cell healing.

Found in ginger, oregano, sage, and thyme, any herbaceous meal you eat likely contains some of the terpene beta-caryophyllene.

Beta-caryophyllene is included in the following Jampha products:

Focus

Detox

Relieve

Breathe

Sleep

Calm

Cadinene

Sources: Cannabis, Juniper, Nutmeg, Sesame

Benefits

  • Fights inflammation
  • Provides antioxidants
  • Kills bacteria
  • Reduce respiratory infections

Description

A widely occurring terpene, cadinene's woody scent is used in fragrances.

Preliminary studies show cadinene fights inflammationfights the streptococcus bacteria responsible for pneumonia and respiratory infections, provides antioxidants, and kills bacteria.

Cadinene is included in the following Jampha products:

Focus

Camphene

Sources: Cannabis, Chrysanthemum, Rosemary

Benefits

  • Prevent coronary heart disease
  • Treats athlete's foot
  • Clear and heal the respiratory system

Descriptions

Camphene's aroma is described as pungent and herbal with undertones of pine. Inhaled, it helps clear congestion and acts as a bronchial stimulant.

Studies so far show it helps prevent heart diseasetreat athlete's foot, and other fungal infections, and clear and heal the respiratory system.

Camphor

Sources: Cannabis, Camphor Laurel Tree

Benefits

  • Topical pain relief
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Heal allergy rashes and dermatitis
  • Reduce pain from migraines
  • Clear respiratory congestion

Description

Pungent camphor is also found in herbs like rosemary, basil, and mint, but is most abundant in laurel trees.

Ancient Japanese and Chinese medical practitioners have long used camphor to treat pain, swelling, and inflammation. Today, camphor is combined with menthol for topical pain relief. You'll also find camphor in lotions and creams to reduce inflammation.

Studies indicate that camphor plays a role in healing allergy rashesreducing migraine pain, and relieves respiratory congestion.

Camphor is included in the following Jampha products:

Breathe

Citral

Sources: Cannabis, Lemongrass, Lemon Fruit, Lemon Verbena

Benefits

  • Sedative
  • Suppresses the growth of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
  • Improves metabolic rates and glucose management
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Relieves diarrhea

Description

With its citrusy aroma, citral adds scent to a range of beauty products, perfumes, and suntan lotions. It is also added to sweets and soft drinks.

Citral is an effective sedative. It also shows promise as an antimicrobial, suppressing the growth of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and other hazardous microbes.

Other studies show applications as an anti-inflammatory, to relieve diarrhea, and improve metabolic rates and glucose management.

Citral is included in the following Jampha products:

Detox

Breathe

Sleep

Calm

Citronellol

Sources: Cannabis, Lemongrass

Benefits

  • Repels bugs
  • Promotes wound healing
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antimicrobial and antibiotic

Descriptions

Citronellol has a floral and citrus scent. It repels some bugs and is an ingredient in some insect repellants.

Research indicated citronellol shows promise as an antimicrobial and antibiotic to promote wound healing and reduce convulsions.

Delta 3 Carene

Sources: Cannabis, Rosemary, Basil, Pepper, Cedar, Pine

Benefits

  • Antibacterial
  • Expectorant
  • Treats diarrhea
  • Anti-inflammatory

Description

The sweet and woody odor of delta 3 carene is evident in familiar sources like rosemary, cedar, and pine.

Studies show delta 3 carene can work as an expectorant to reduce mucus from the lungs. It is an anti-inflammatory with applications for fibromyalgia, arthritis, and other painful chronic conditions. It's also shown to kill gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and candida species.

Delta 3 Carene is included in the following Jampha products:

Focus

Detox

Eucalyptol

Sources: Cannabis, Bay Leaves, Tea Tree, Sage, Cardamom

Benefits

  • Relieves pain-causing inflammation
  • Treats respiratory diseases
  • Potential treatments for pancreatitis
  • Antioxidant
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Enhances memory and mood

Description

Found in camphor laurel, bay leaves, tea tree, sweet basil, rosemary, sage, and cannabis, eucalyptol has a minty scent, with a little spice and honey.

Studies show eucalyptol works as an antioxidant and provides relief from inflammation-causing pain. It shows promise to treat respiratory diseases and pancreatitis.

Eucalyptol has antibacterial and antifungal properties. It also has mental benefits and enhances memory and mood.

Eucalyptol is included in the following Jampha products:

Detox

Breathe

Eugenol

Sources: Cannabis, Turmeric, Ginger, Marjoram, Nutmeg, Oregano, Thyme

Benefits

  • Gentle local anesthetic and antiseptic
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Protect against food-borne pathogens

Description

Since it protects against food-borne pathogens, fragrant and spicy eugenol is added to food preservatives, beauty products, toothpaste, and mouthwash.

Because it works as a gentle local anesthetic and antiseptic, eugenol used to be common in dentistry. It also works as an antibacterial, antifungalanti-inflammatory, and antioxidant.

Eugenol is included in the following Jampha products:

Detox

Relieve

Gamma Terpinene

Sources: Cannabis, Parsnip, Green Bell Pepper, Turmeric

Benefits

  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory

Description

Because of its strong lemon odor, gamma-terpinene is added to food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and tobacco.

Research on gamma-terpinene shows antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory benefits.

Gamma Terpinine is included in the following Jampha products:

Relieve

Sleep

Geraniol

Sources: Cannabis, Catnip, Lemongrass, Beebalm, Grapes

Benefits

  • Antimicrobial
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-tumor
  • Neuroprotectant
  • Antifungal
  • Antiviral
  • Reduces depression

Description

Geraniol is widely used in perfumes and toilet solutions thanks to its rose-like aroma.

The therapeutic applications are relatively extensive, including as an antiviralantifungalantimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory.

Researchers have found the geraniol to possess anti-tumor properties on skin, oral, breast, lung, colon, prostate, pancreatic, kidney, and liver cancers.

It works as a neuroprotectant and reduces depression.

Geraniol is included in the following Jampha products:

Detox

Breathe

Sleep

Humulene

Sources: Cannabis, Sage, Ginseng, Hops

Benefits

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Destroys cancer cells
  • Malaria
  • Dengue fever

Description

Through its sources like ginseng, humulene has been used in Chinese medicine for generations.

Research shows it works as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic. It offers the potential to treat arthritis, bursitis, fibromyalgia, and any condition that benefits from reducing inflammation.

Humulene is very effective against bacteria, including staph infection. It also inhibits tumor growth by producing chemicals that help destroy cancer cells and is useful in treating malaria and dengue fever.

Humulene is included in the following Jampha products:

Balance

Relieve

Limonene/D-Limonene

Sources: Cannabis, Orange Rind, Dill, Cardamom, Marigolds, Nutmeg

Benefits

  • Anti-cancer
  • Sedative
  • Natural insecticide
  • Antimicrobial
  • Protects cardiovascular tissue
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Anti-stress
  • Antiviral

Description

Limonene has a growing list of researched benefits. It acts as a natural insecticideantiviral, and antimicrobial.

After a heart attack, limonene may help protect and repair cardiovascular tissue.

In studies on colon cancer, d-limonene effectively fought cancer cells. Specifically, it signals the immune system to target and eliminate those cells.

To improve mood and enhance well-being, limonene is a powerful sedative, reduces anxiety and depression, and fights stress.

Limonene is included in the following Jampha products:

Focus

Detox

Relieve

Breathe

Linalool

Sources: Mints, Cinnamon, Rosewood, Citrus, Lavender

Benefits

  • Reduces anxiety
  • Reduces seizures
  • Antidepressant
  • Muscle relaxant
  • Repels mosquitos
  • Sleep aid
  • Reduces pain
  • Fights cancer

Description

Like many terpenes, linalool has untapped potential. Its scent is floral with a hint of spice and citrus and is used as a food additive to enhance flavor and as part of the aroma profile in cleaning, cosmetic, and hygiene products.

Studies so far show applications to reduce anxietyrelieve stressease depressionreduce epileptic seizuresreduce pain, and fight cancer.

Linalool also works as a muscle relaxantmosquito repellant, and sleep aid.

Linalool is included in the following Jampha products:

Balance

Detox

Relieve

Sleep

Calm

Myrcene

Sources: Cannabis, Hops, Mango, Basil, Lemongrass

Benefits

  • Sedative
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Treating diabetes
  • Sleep disorders like insomnia
  • Reduce pain

Description

Myrcene has been a dominant terpene in the world of cannabis research. It works as an analgesic to reduce pain and bodily discomfort and an effective sedative. Like many terpenes, it is a useful anti-inflammatory.

In Brazilian traditional medicine, it's been used for treating diabetes, diarrhea, and hypertension. Myrcene also acts as a muscle relaxant with the potential to treat sleep disorders like insomnia.

Myrcene is included in the following Jampha products:

Relieve

Sleep

Calm

Nerol

Sources: Cannabis, Lemongrass, Hops

Benefits

  • Antiseptic
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Pain relief

Description

Originally derived from flowers of the bitter orange, the terpene neroli shows benefits as an antiseptic, antibacterialanti-inflammatory, and for pain relief.

Nerolidol

Sources: Cannabis, Neroli, Ginger, Jasmine, Tea Tree

Benefits

  • Sedative
  • Antioxidant
  • Antimicrobial
  • Kills parasites
  • Natural insecticide
  • Kills cancer cells
  • Anti-inflammatory

Description

Woodsy, floral, and lightly citrusy nerolidol is used in shampoos, perfumes, detergents, and cleansers. It's an FDA approved food flavoring agent.

Nerolidol's sedative properties were first documented in 1972. It is currently under testing as a skin penetration enhancer for the transdermal delivery of therapeutic drugs. Research already shows it works as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, insecticidal, anti-ulcer, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory.

Nerolidol is included in the following Jampha products:

Calm

Ocimene

Sources: Cannabis, Allspice, Parsley, Marjoram, Tarragon, Mango

Benefits

  • Decongestant and expectorant
  • Antiviral
  • Antibacterial
  • Reduces seizures
  • Antifungal
  • Fights cancer

Description

Because of its pleasant, herbaceous aroma, ocimene is used in many perfumes.

Ocimene is a decongestant and expectorant that helps clear airways and improve respiration. It is shown to work as an antibacterial and kills fungus.

Other medical applications include reducing seizures and fighting cancer tumors.

Para-Cymene

Sources: Cannabis, Cumin, Thyme, Oregano, Anise, Eucalyptus

Benefits

  • Antioxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Reduces anxiety
  • Kills cancer cells
  • Antimicrobial

Description

With a sweet and citrusy taste and scent, para-cymene makes a popular flavoring agent. It's also used in make-up, perfumes, and cleaning products.

Studies show para-cymene to have antioxidantanti-inflammatoryanxiolyticanti-cancer, and antimicrobial properties.

Para-Cymene is included in the following Jampha products:

Breathe

Phytol

Sources: Cannabis, Chlorophyll

Benefits

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Fights cancer

Description

Phytol is released during chlorophyll breakdown. It's used in many fragrance compounds as an aromatic ingredient.

Medically, research so far shows it to act as an antioxidantreduce inflammation, and fight cancer.

Phytol is included in the following Jampha products:

Focus

Pulegone

Sources: Cannabis, Pennyroyal, Catnip, Peppermint

Benefits

  • Muscle relaxer
  • Improve memory

Description

Pulegone has a pleasant, mint-like odor and is used as a flavoring agent and in perfumes.

Preliminary research shows its benefits as a muscle relaxer.

It also helps the brain and nerve cells to communicate more effectively and improves your memory.

Pulegone is included in the following Jampha products:

Breathe

Terpineol

Sources: Cannabis, Lilacs, Pine Trees, Clary Sage, Coriander, Mandarin Orange

Benefits

  • Sedative
  • Antifungal
  • Gastroprotective
  • Kill bacteria
  • Potential to treat cancer
  • Reduce seizures

Description

Terpineol has a pleasant forest-like and floral aroma. Used as a flavoring in sweets, beverages, and condiments, you can also find terpineol in soaps, candles, perfumes, and lotions.

Research shows it kills bacteria and fights fungus.

For patients with epilepsy, it can reduce the frequency and intensity of seizures.

Terpineol offers multiple therapeutic benefits, including potential in treating cancer and as a gastroprotective.

It also is one of the molecules responsible for the sedative properties of some cannabis. 

Terpineol is included in the following Jampha products:

Detox

Relieve

Sleep

Calm

Terpinolene

Sources: Cannabis, Lilac, Tea Tree, Nutmeg, Apples, Cabbage, Carrots, Conifers, Sage

Benefits

  • Sedative
  • Repels insects
  • Reduce anxiety and panic attacks

Description

Terpinolene has a woody aroma that is often accompanied by citrusy and floral tones.

This fresh-tasting compound is a natural insect repellent. It reduces anxiety and treats insomnia and panic attacks.

Terpinolene is included in the following Jampha products:

Balance

Valencene

Sources: Cannabis, Valencia Oranges

Benefits

  • Inhibits the growth of cancer cells
  • Fights damage to the skin due to sun exposure
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Relieves and controls allergic responses

Description

With a sweet and citrusy aroma, the terpene valencene is a highly valued flavor additive.

Like many terpenes, valencene has anti-inflammatory properties. It also can help treat allergies and reduce the reaction.

Valencene shows the potential to fight damage made to the skin due to sun exposure and inhibits the growth of cancer cells.

Valencene is included in the following Jampha products:

Sleep

Calm

The Safety of Terpenes and Essential Oils

Essential oils contain terpenes mixed with other compounds. If you diffuse a rose or lavender essential oil, terpene molecules in the air create the floral aroma. Essential oils have a mix of terpenes with other concentrated plant compounds.

As is the case with powerful medicine, the correct dose is beneficial, but an overdose can be harmful. This is particularly true with essential oils. People tend to think, "it's just plants," without realizing the remarkable impact of plant molecules on the body.

While terpenes are safe to eat, and some are FDA approved as food additives, a few can be toxic in high quantities. CBD is carefully crafted with a healthy level of the right terpenes.

Most essential oils are best used by diffuser and should not be consumed. Some can cause a rash on the skin or be poisonous if swallowed, so users should carefully investigate each oil before use.

Some are so potent they need to be diluted to be safe to use. Popular essential oils that must be diluted include:

  • Bay
  • Cinnamon bark or leaf
  • Clove bud
  • Citronella
  • Cumin
  • Lemongrass
  • Lemon verbena
  • Oregano
  • Thyme

Not Just Plants, Plant Molecules

Cannabis and the industrial hemp plant have a remarkably high concentration and variety of terpenes. Full-spectrum CBD harnesses the power of these plant molecules, individually and together, as an entourage.

Next time you catch the scent of fresh orange, pine, or garden flowers, take a deep breath. Those are terpenes, and they are good for you.

 

 

 

 

 





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